PLANT: Perennial herbs, 5 22 cm tall. STEMS: none; plants arising from thin, creeping rhizomes, forming late season stolons, glabrous. LEAVES: simple, basal, erect; stipules reddish; petioles 20 170 mm long; blades 20 65 mm long, 22 56 mm wide, ovate to round, crenate, the base cordate, the tip obtuse. INFLORESCENCE: scapose, the pedicels to 21 cm long. FLOWERS: sepal lobes 1 2 mm long, ear like; petals almost white to pale blue or violet, the tips acute, the 3 lower petals purple veined at base, the lateral 2 usually white bearded, the lowest petal (including spur) 8 17 mm long. FRUITS: 6 7 mm long, glabrous. 2n = 48. NOTES: Bogs, stream sides: Coconino co.; 2200 2400 m (7200 7900 ft); May Jul; circumboreal, n Eur. and Asia, AK to Labrador; WA s to n CA, e to CO, ME, NH. Known in AZ only from vicinity of Woods Canyon Lake; confused with V. palustris L. REFERENCES: Little, R. John. 2001. Violaceae. J. Ariz. - Nev. Acad. Sci. Volume 33(1).
Acaulescent, with slender creeping rhizomes, and freely stoloniferous, glabrous or variously hairy; petioles and peduncles usually greenish; lvs evidently crenate, broadly cordate-ovate to reniform, commonly 1-3 cm wide at anthesis, later to 8 cm, rounded to blunt to acutish above, the basal sinus more open than in no. 13 [Viola blanda Willd.]; fls fragrant or inodorous, on erect peduncles equaling or rising above the lvs; pet white, the 3 lower with brown-purple veins near the base, the 2 upper narrowly obovate, only slightly (or not at all) recurved, not twisted, the 2 lateral ones beardless or scantily bearded, straighter and more spreading than in no. 13; cleistogamous fls on prostrate or erect peduncles, with green, ellipsoid or ovoid frs 4-6 mm; seeds brown or nearly black; 2n=24. Springy land, and along cold streams, often in shallow water; Lab. and Nf. to B.C., s. to Del., O., Ind., Io., and in the mts. to S.C., Tenn., n. Ga., and Calif. Apr.-July. Our plants, as here described, are var. pallens (Banks) C. L. Hitchc., in contrast to the cordilleran var. macloskeyi, with smaller, less toothed lvs. (V. pallens)
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.