PLANT: Diffusely branched, 1-3.5 m tall, 1-3.5 m wide. STEMS: many, bark gray-brown; primary lateral branches spreading to ascending; secondary lateral branches suppressed. LEAVES: oblanceolate to elliptic to obovate or occasionally spathulate, 3-8(-9) mm long, 1-2.5(-3.5) mm wide, acute to occasionally obtuse, with base acute to somewhat attenuate, dull green to gray, slightly but distinctly wrinkled above, dull green beneath, sparsely to densely hispidulous; veins thick, somewhat raised and prominent, occupying much of the underside of young leaves. INFLORESCENCE: borne on suppressed secondary shoots, usually 1-2 flowers reaching maturity per fascicle. FLOWERS: with pedicels (0.5-)1-2.5(-3) mm; sepals predominantly persistent. FRUIT: mildly or not bitter, with the stone slightly elongate, 2-4.5 mm long, 2-4 mm wide, black to light brown. NOTES: 2 subspp; AZ, NM, TX, Mex. REFERENCES: Kyle Christie, Michael Currie, Laura Smith Davis, Mar-Elise Hill, Suzanne Neal, and Tina Ayers, 2006 Vascular Plants of Arizona: Rhamnaceae. CANOTIA 2(1): 23-46.
Christie et al. 2006, Johnston 1964
Common Name: Warnock's snakewood Duration: Perennial Nativity: Native Lifeform: Shrub General: Shrubs 0.5-3 m tall, primary branches 5-20 cm long, bow shaped, usually thorn-tipped; secondary branches 2-7 cm long, straighter, all thorn-tipped, with many leafy short-shoots, 0.5-1 cm long; young bark gray to whitish, older becoming brownish gray to nearly black and furrowed; epidermis purplish-brown, densely short villous with internodes 1-3 mm long. Leaves: Alternate or usually in fascicles of 2-5 at each short shoot; blades spatulate, 3-7 mm long, 1-2.6 mm broad, usually acute apex, basally acuminate; marginally entire and hispidulous, sordid yellowish or brownish olive or grayish green and hispidulous, beneath dark olive green or sordid gray-green; petioles 0.5 mm long, olive-gren, hispiduous. Flowers: Solitary or in fascicles of 2-3 at the short shoots; pedicels 0.5-1.2 mm long, olive, densely hispidulous, cup 1.5-2 mm across, purple, hispidulous outside; deltoid sepals, 1-1.8 mm long, purplish olive, hispidulous, petals absent. Fruits: Globose when mature, black to reddish black, 4-6 mm long, 3-4.5 mm thick when dry, with moderate amount of pulp, large two-celled with 1-2 seeds. Ecology: Found along dry washes, drainages, and in canyons from 1,500-5,000 ft (457-1524 m); flowers in fall. Notes: Distinguished as being a medium to tall, densely-branched shrub with old bark becoming fissured, branches gray to whitish and ending in thorns; small leaves in clusters from nodes (fascicles); pedicels 1-2.5 mm; and red to dark purple berries with persistent sepals. Var. kearneyana is distinguished in our region by having leaves 1-3.5 mm wide. The minute leaves and the delicate hispidulous hairs that cover them help to distinguish this species. Ethnobotany: Unknown Etymology: Condalia is named after Antonio Condal, and 18th century Spanish physician and botanist, while warnockii is named for Dr. Barton H. Warnock (1911-1998), a Texas botanist. Synonyms: None Editor: SBuckley 2010, FSCoburn 2015