Shrubs or shrubby trees dioecious, to 6 m, usually multistemmed; crown flattened-globose to irregular. Bark ashy gray to brown, exfoliating in long strips, that of small branchlets (5--10 mm diam.) smooth, that of larger branchlets exfoliating in strips or sometimes in flakes. Branches spreading to ascending; branchlets erect, 3--4-sided in cross section, ca. 2/3 as wide as length of scalelike leaves. Leaves yellow-green, abaxial glands elliptic to elongate, many with an evident white crystalline exudate, margins denticulate (at 20´); whip leaves 4--6 mm, not glaucous adaxially; scalelike leaves 1--2 mm, not overlapping or overlapping by not more than 1/5 their length, keeled, apex acute, spreading. Seed cones maturing in 1 year, of 1 size, with straight peduncles, globose to ovoid, 6--8(--10) mm, copper to copper-red, not glaucous, fleshy and sweet, not resinous, with 1(--2) seeds. Seeds 4--5 mm.
Gravelly soils on rolling hills and in ravines, limestone, gypsum; 300--1000(--1700) m; N.Mex., Okla., Tex.; Mexico.
Pinchot juniper hybridizes with Juniperus coahuilensis (R. P. Adams and J. R. Kistler 1991) but not with J . ashei (R. P. Adams 1977) or J . monosperma (R. P. Adams 1975). The type specimen of J . erythrocarpa is merely an individual with brighter red seed cones.