A short-lived perennial with larger, bright yellow fls and glabrous, elliptic frs, is reported to be established (as an escape) in Oneida Co., N.Y. (Aurinia p.) A. saxatile L., a matted perennial with yellow fls and glabrous frs, also sometimes escapes. (Aurinia s.)
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.